Basics of Applied Cryptography and Network Security (Fall 2008)

Instructor: Sujata Garera

Office: Wyman Park Room 420

Office hours: 4:30-5:30pm on Wednesday

Email: sgarera@cs.jhu.edu

Course Timing: Tuesday, Wednesday 3-4:15pm

Course Room: Wyman Park Conference Room

Jorge Vasconcelos is collaborating with me on providing reading material for the class and on the grading. His email is jorgev@cs.jhu.edu and his office hours are on Thursday 2-4pm in the MSSI lab

This course will cover some key aspects of applied cryptography. The course will provide an overview of some early systems in cryptography such as substitution and permutation ciphers. The course will further provide a thorough understanding of recent topics in applied cryptography. Topics include algorithms for encryption and decryption using symmetric key and public key techniques, design and analysis of block and stream ciphers, pseudo-random number generation, hash functions and their uses, message authentication codes, authentication protocols, key establishment, key management, digital signatures and secret sharing. Students will understand how cryptosystems are designed and analysed along with specific applications of cryptography.

Prerequisites:

Students are expected to enter this class with knowledge in Number Theory, Algorithms, Probability and Discrete Math. Initial course survey can be found here

Announcements:

Lecture Slides:

Lecture slides can be found here

Assignments:

Course Syllabus:

A detailed description of the course can be found here . Note that the syllabus may be subject to change as the semester proceeds

Text Books

Recommended textbooks for this course are
Cryptography and Network Security by William Stallings
Handbook of Applied Cryptography available out here .

Grading Policy:

Midterm : 25%
Final: 30%
In Class Assignments: 20%
Take Home Assignments: 20%
Participation and Surprise Quizzes: 5%

Assignments are due at the beginning of class on the stated due date. In class assignments must be completed within the allocated class time. Late submissions of take home assignments will be penalized 10% points per day. No collaboration is allowed on assignments unless stated otherwise. No collaboration is allowed on exams.

Academic Integerity:

Academic Integrity and Ethical behavior are required in this course, as it is in all courses at Johns Hopkins University. Academic integrity code for the Department of Computer Science can be found here.

Syllabus and Readings:

These topics may be subject to change as the course proceeds

Unit 1: Introduction

Computer security definitions and aspects (confidentiality, integrity, authentication, access control, availability, privacy), basic terminology, cryptographic system, classical cryptography, substitution and transposition techniques, statistical attacks, cryptanalysis
Suggested Reading:
--Chapter 2 from Stallings

Unit 2: Block Ciphers and Stream Ciphers

Modes of operation (ECB, CBC, CFB, OFB), multiple encryption, DES, Triple-DES, DES-X, AES, stream ciphers, RC4
Suggested Reading:
--Chapter 3, 5, 6 from Stallings
--Attacks on RC4 and WEP, Fluhrer, Mantin and Shamir available out here
--The Security of DES-X, Phillip Rogaway, available out here

-- On the Security of Multiple Encryption, Merkle, Hellman available out here
-- AES implementation on 8-bit microcontroller here

Unit 3: Key distribution and Random Number Generation

Key distribution, Random and pseudorandom bit generation, statistical tests of randomness,cryptographically secure pseudo-random bit generators
Suggested Reading:
--Chapter 7, 13.2 from stallings, Handbook chapter 5 has good discussion on tests of randomness
--Cryptanalytic Attacks on Pseudorandom Number Generators, John Kelsey, Bruce Schneier, David Wagner and Chris Hall, available at here
-- This site discusses random numbers based on radioactive decay.
-- Randomness Recommendations for Security here
-- Creating Cryptographic-Quality Random Numbers here
-- Prudent Engineering Practice for Cryptographic Protocols here

Unit 4: Hash Functions and MAC

Properties of hash functions, birthday attack, hash-cash, Message Authentication Code Algorithms, MAC protocols, HMAC, CBC-MAC
Suggested Reading:
--Chapter 11,12 from Stallings (whatever pertains to lectures)
--Chaffing and Winnowing: Confidentiality without Encryption by Rivest available here

Unit 5: Public Key Cryptography

Diffie Hellman, Attacks on Diffie Hellman, Diffie Hellman problem, Vanilla RSA and OAEPRSA, Attacks on RSA, ElGamal, Semantic Security
Suggested Reading:
-- Chapter 8 from the Handbook as reference [8.2 for RSA,8.4 Elgamal]
-- Stallings 10.1, 10.2, 17.2 (whatever pertains to lectures)
-- Handbook number theoretic problems discusses DHP
-- New Directions in Cryptography, Whitefield Diffie and Martin Hellman, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1976, available out here
-- A Cost-Based Security Analysis of Symmetric and Asymmetric Key Lengths available out here
-- New public key cryptosystems based on the dependant RSA problem by David Pointcheval available out here

Unit 6: Digital Signatures

Classification of signature schemes, RSA signature, Digital Signature Standard, one time signature schemes, attacks on Digital Signatures, Blind Signatures
Suggested Reading:
-- Chapter 11 from the Handbook
-- Blind signatures for untraceable payments, David Chaum, Crypto 1982, available out here

Unit 7: Key Management and Authentication Protocols

Techniques for distributing confidential and public keys, session keys, Needham-Schroeder, Otaway-Rees, Kerberos
Suggested Reading:
-- Chapter 13 from the Handbook
-- Using Encryption for Authentication in Large Networks of Computers, Roger Needham, Michael Schroeder, CACM1978, available out here
-- Designing an Authentication System: a Dialogue in Four Scenes, Bill Bryant 1988, available out here

Unit 8: Secret Sharing

Shamir's Secret Sharing scheme, Verifiable Secret Sharing, Threshold RSA, Visual Cryptography
Suggested Reading:
-- How to Share a Secret, Adi Shamir CACM 1979, available out here
-- A Simplified Approach to Threshold and Proactive RSA, Tal Rabin Crypto 1998, available out here
-- Visual cryptography and threshold schemes, Doug Stinson, available out here

Schedule (some are tentative)
Date Lecture Slides Comments
9/9/08 Lecture 1 Introduction, Course Description, Basics, Shift Ciphers, Substitution Ciphers, Survey
9/10/08 Lecture 2 Cryptanalysis of Vigenere, Perfect Secrecy
Perfect secrecy from Stinson
9/16/08 Lecture 3 Perfect secrecy, Block Ciphers, DES
9/17/08 Lecture 4 Modes of operation, Cryptanalysis of DES, DESX, Number theory started
9/23/08 Lecture 5 Number Theory (Fields, Polynomial Arithmetic)
9/24/08 Lecture 6 AES
9/30/08 In class Assignment 1
10/1/08 Lecture 7 RC4,FMS attack
10/7/08 Lecture 8 Key distribution
10/8/08 Lecture 9 Authentication protocol, Random number generation
10/14/08 Lecture 10 Random number generation, Hash Functions
10/15/08 Lecture 11 (continuation of 10) Hash Functions continued and suprise quiz
10/21/08 Review AES, authentication protocol
10/22/08 Midterm
10/28/08 Lecture 12 Message Authentication Codes
10/29/08 Lecture 13 Public Key Cryptography, Diffie Hellman, Attacks, Auth DH
11/4/08 Lecture 14 DH in SSL, RSA
11/5/08 Lecture 15 RSA, OAEP-RSA, Semantic Security
11/11/08 Lecture 16 OAEP reviewed, Semantic security, Elgamal
11/12/08 Lecture 17 Digital signatures, DSA, Blind Signature applications
11/18/08 In class assignment 2
11/19/08 Lecture 18 Secret Sharing and applications
11/25/08 Lecture 19 Visual Cryptography and applications
12/2/08 Review Review
12/3/08 Final Final Examination