Pintos Project Guide

A significant element of this class are programming projects using Pintos. Pintos is a teaching operating system for 80x86. It is simple and small (compared to Linux). On the other hand, it is realistic enough to help you understand core OS concepts in depth. It supports kernel threads, virtual memory, user programs, and file system. But its original implementations are premature or incomplete. Through the projects, you will be strengthening all of these areas of Pintos to make it complete.

These projects are hard. They have a reputation of taking a lot of time. But they are also as rewarding as they are challenging. Since Pintos is designed for 80x86 architecture, at the end of the projects, you could run theoretically the OS that you built on a regular IBM-compatible PC! Of course, during development, running Pintos on bare metal machines each time could be time consuming. Instead, you will run the projects in an x86 emulator, in particular, Bochs or QEMU. Pintos has also been tested with VMWare Player.

We will start with a pre-project and then do four substantial projects:

Project Weight Due
Lab 0: Getting Real 2% 09/12 11:59 pm
Lab 1: Threads 8% 09/27 11:59 pm
Lab 2: User Programs 10% 10/19 11:59 pm
Lab 3: Virtual Memory 14% 11/12 11:59 pm
Lab 4: File Systems 16% 12/08 11:59 pm

Groups

Lab 0 is an individual project. From Lab 1 and onwards, you can work in groups of 1-3 people. We will overlap Lab 0 with the stage of forming groups. So start talking with your classmates around once the course begins!


Getting Started

To get started, you need to get a copy of the Pintos source code distribution:

$ git clone https://github.com/jhu-cs318/pintos.git
Warning!
We have made some customization to the official Pintos distribution. So you should be only getting the source code from the above channels. In other words, do not download from other websites.

Before you can compile and develop on Pintos, you will need to have a machine with the appropriate environment setup. The CS department’s lab machines support Pintos development. We will be test your code on these machines. If you decide to work on the projects on your own machine (e.g., Ubuntu, Fedora, Mac OS), you can refer to the setup guide for instructions.


Documentation


Version Control

We will be using Git for version control in the class. If you are new to Git, there are plenty of tutorials online that you can read, e.g., this one.


Grading

We will grade your assignments based on test results (60% of your grade) as well as design quality (40% of your grade). Note that the testing grades are fully automated. So please turn in working code or there is no credit. The grading policy page lists detailed information about how grading is done.


Submission

We will be using GitHub classroom to distribute and collect assignments. You do not have to do anything special to submit your project. We will use a snapshot of your GitHub repository as it exists at the deadline, and grade that version. You can still make changes to your repository after the deadline. But we will be only using the snapshot of your code as of the deadline.


Late Policies

By default, each team will be given a 72-hour grace period in total that can spread in the four labs. It can be used for team members to prepare interviews, attend conferences, etc. When you use the grace period tokens, you just need to let us know how much of the token you want to use. We won’t be asking why. Late submissions without or exceeding grace period will receive penalties as follows: 1 day late, 10% deduction; 2 days late, 30% deduction; 3 days late, 60% deduction; after 4 days, no credit.


Tips

GDB Port

If you are using gdb on the lab machines to debug Pintos, you may encounter a port conflict error. That’s because pintos --gdb will invoke the -s option with QEMU, which in turn is a short-hand for -gdb tcp::1234. So multiple users might try to compete for the same port. We’ve modified the pintos script to add two options to work around this.

  • --gdb-port to specify a port explicitly. You can choose any port that’s available to bind gdb, e.g., pintos --gdb --gdb-port=2430.
  • --uport to calculate a port number deterministically based on the user id. So different users on the lab machines will get a different port. Example: pintos --gdb --uport. You can find the generated port in the command verbose output (e.g., qemu-system-i386 ... -gdb tcp::25501).

When you use these two options, you also need to change the target remote command in the gdb session to point to the specified/calculated port instead of 1234.

Mac Users

The original Pintos was mainly developed and tested for Linux (Debian and Ubuntu in particular) and Solaris. It has some issues to run on Mac OS. We have fixed a number of issues and provided scripts to make it run more smoothly with Mac OS. They should be working mostly. But one caveat that you should be aware of is that the setitimer system call (used by the pintos script to control runtime of tests) in Mac OS seems to have some bug, which may trigger premature timeout when using pintos with --qemu. To work around this, you can either use the Bochs simulator --bochs instead (modify the src/{threads,userprog,vm,filesys}/Make.vars) or increase the timeout passed to pintos (e.g., change TIMEOUT in src/tests/Make.tests to 400).


Cheating and Collaboration

Warning!
This class has zero tolerance for cheating. We will run tools to check your submission against a comprehensive database of solutions including past and present submissions for potential cheating. The consequences are very high. Please read the JHU CS department's academic integrity code.

The basic policies are:

  • Never share code or text on the project. That also means do not make your solutions public on the Internet, e.g., GitHub public repo.
  • Never use someone else’s code or text in your solutions.
  • Never consult project code or text found on the Internet.
  • You may read but not copy Linux or BSD source code. But you must cite any code that inspired your code. As long as you cite what you used, it’s not cheating. In the worst case, we deduct points if it undermines the assignment.

On the other hand, we encourage collaboration in the following form:

  • Share ideas (but do not give code to others).
  • Explain your code to someone to see if they know why it does not work.
  • Help someone else debug if they’ve got stuck.